Friday, September 26, 2008

Journeying with Jung 5



Chapter 4:  The Geology of the Person:

Again Hayman has come up with a gripping chapter title.  I am reminded that Freud, under the influence of the archaeologist Friedrich Schliemann spoke about the archaeology of the person, namely that he perceived a layering effect in the human psyche, and hence we have what is commonly termed as the topographical model of the psyche.  One might add that Hayman is arguing the same thing with respect to Carl Gustave Jung that here we have an insight into Jungian topography of the psyche.

Search for Meaning:

Jung was not quite 20 years of age when he entered the University of Basel as a medical student where as a young enthusiastic and idealistic student he was expecting anatomy and physiology to provide an explanation of what life might mean.  Here he came under the influence of Professor Friedrich Zschokke.  This man spoke about what he termed the "geology of the person" maintaining that everything we find in the human person can be found in the course of evolution.  Followers of this theory, like Jung, would argue that "ontogenesis recapitulates phylogenesis,"  a theory and terminology proposed by the biologist Haekel, meaning that the lifelong development of the individual human body goes through the same stages as the evolution of the human race.  If such could happen for the human body, then something parallel could happen for the human mind.  Hence we had Haekel arguing for a phylogenetic psychology which focused on the phylogeny of the soul.  (Op. cit., 30)  Jung was a firmly convinced follower of this school of thought.  Obviously this is a one-sided theory that forgets about the influence of the environment on all creatures.

All of this heady stuff, along with much personal and spiritual experiences, convinced Jung of the importance of the pursuit of meaning in life.  Hayman points out that it was a source of puzzlement to him that other people "were not going all out" to discover the purpose of life:

'Whenever we look for the real reason, we reach the great void, an area of the vaguest hypotheses.  Our flimsy intelligence simply stops functioning at the point where the true explanation starts.'  Throughout his long career, Jung's priorities lay substantially unchanged, and he revealed them when he exhorted his audience to 'abandon the safe path that has been laid out for us by the esteemed scientists and acclaimed philosophers, to make our own independent sorties into the realm of the unfathomable, to pursue nocturnal shadows and bang on doors which DuBois-Reymond has locked permanently with his little key saying Ignorabimus. (We shall not know.)'  (ibid. 39)

Jung's Spiritualism, Séances, the Occult and Parapsychology:

Jung was surrounded by a sense of religious realities, mainly the Swiss Reformed Church, of which his father and eight of his uncles were ministers.  However, as a young boy he had little time for the official church or indeed his father with whom he had a very poor relationship.  This church did nothing for him on a personal level.  Then his mother was a highly-strung spiritual woman who felt she could get in touch with the spirits from the other world.  No wonder the young boy had a strong sense for the spiritual world.  He felt that he himself had a privileged access to the experience of God in his own life - unlike his father.  Let me return to Hayman again:

It was natural that Jung gravitated towards spiritualism.  His cousins had talked about strange goings-on in the family, and the vogue for seances, which had started in the USA during the 1840s, had spread to Europe during the 1850s.  Nor would psychology and spiritualism have seemed unconnected.  One mainstream approach to the unconscious was through the activities of mediums.  Some of the most eminent thinkers and doctors - William James, Théodore Fluornoy, Frederick Myers - became involved in parapsychology.  (ibid., 32)

It is also interesting to note that the inveterate reader devoured some seven books by the eighteenth-century Swedish scientist and mystic, Emanuel Swedenborg who was convinced that dreams offer direct access to an otherwise invisible world from which angels and demons exercise influence on everyday life.  It's also interesting to note that the great English pre-Romantic poet, writer and engraver, William Blake was also a disciple of the great Swedish visionary's work.   There are two references to Blake in Hayman's biography but only one refers to Jung directly and that is where the author mentions the psychiatrist's allusion to "introverted sensation types" as being "mystical dreamers, artists and cranks" who focus on the background of consciousness.  Jung assigned both William Blake and himself to this category.  (See ibid., 232).

Jung now organised in his early twenties séances with the encouragement of his mother.  All of these involved working with his cousins.  In fact his mother actually came to the séances while his father lay in bed either ill or having retired early.  Needless to say he was kept in the dark about them.  All of his Preiswerk cousins were intrigued by the occult and the paranormal.  His cousin Helly, four years younger than cousin Luggy fell madly in love with her older cousin Carl Gustave and became jealous of the better looking Luggy whom Carl seemed to prefer.

A Note on Hypnosis:

The eighteenth century Austrian physician, Franz Anton Mesmer is reputed to have discovered hypnotism which was then called eponymously Mesmerism.  While Jean-Martin Charcot, to whom I have alluded with respect to Freud already, thought the hypnotic state to be a pathological one, his rival at Nancy, Professor Hippolyte Bernheim regarded it as a heightened state of suggestibility, and recommended its therapeutic use.  Hayman points out that "for a time the terms psychotherapy and hypnotism were synonymous."  (Ibid., 33)  From his earliest medical years then, Jung was acquainted with hypnosis and learned the technique.

The Intrapersonal:

Jung would certainly not have used this modern term.  Interpersonal relationships refer obviously to how people relate one to another.  An Intrapersonal relationship refers to how an individual related to him/herself.  Returning to Hayman we read:

Most of his fellow students formed relationships with girls, but though he was to go through a long period of trying to find a father substitute, he was already building the foundations for his theory that the psyche's most important relationship is with itself, that the path to spiritual maturity is through the integration of the self.  (ibid., 33)



Above Jung with pipe again!

Wednesday, September 24, 2008

Journeying with Jung 4



In this post I wish to continue my journey with Jung by tracing it chapter by chapter in Ronald Hayman's great book alluded to in the last three posts.

 

Chapter 3:  Such a Wicked Thought:

Of all the activities at the Gymnasium (secondary school) at Basel Carl Gustave Jung hated gymnastics as he hated being told how to move.  He also had a dislike of mathematics but passed because he had such a prodigious memory.  He loved animals, flowers, geology and fossils.  He was also an inveterate reader and literally devoured books he took at random from his father's library.  He read freely and widely as mood and interest took him.  This characteristic he kept all through life - an extremely wide voracious appetite for reading everything and anything.  This fact about Jung has always enthralled and fascinated me - his prodigious knowledge, gained mainly from reading.

The Shitting God and other Secrets:

I find this episode from Jung's early life fascinating indeed.  There are two accounts of the "Shitting God" episode - one recounted as a dream and another recounted as a daydream, but both obviously refer to the one instance.  The scene of the daydream or dream is the cathedral square in the city of Basel.  It was a sunny day and God is pictured sitting on a golden throne and he then squats over the cathedral and drops a great turd which shatters its dome.  This dream is interesting when one considers the fact the the young Carl was surrounded by clergy and church on all sides as it were - eight of his uncles and his father all being clergy men.  Needless to say the boy was frightened by the vivid destruction and awful disgust of this dream - here one had the most sublime being of all defecating on a veritable holy of holies - his very own church. Hayman gives the following insight into this amazing dream or daydream:

The octogenarian Jung still believed that in assigning the thought to him, God had been selecting his for a special relationship.  But the belief may originally have been no more than a consolation prize Carl awarded himself.  What he would have preferred was a loving relationship with two parents who loved each other.  But this was a secret he kept even from himself.  (Opus citatum, 18-19)

This dream, along with a dream of a giant penis Carl kept to himself, needless to say.  He also had a homosexual experience which he related a little about in a letter to Freud.  All these things were to be secrets for the greater part of his life.  The sexual experience is somewhat ambiguous and is rendered into English by two divergent translations, viz., "When I was a boy I submitted to a man I once venerated," and "I suffered a sexual assault from..."  However, Erik Erikson points out that the original German means "I laid under," that is, "I submitted."  (see ibid., 20)   Hayman underscores the secretive nature of these events:

Although the penis dream, the fantasy about a shitting God and the manikin game were crucial to his imaginative world, he never talked about them.  After the abortive attempt to confide in Freud about the homosexual episode, he remained equally silent about that.  The dream remained a secret until he was in his sixty-sixth year, and he never confided in his wife about the fantasy or the manikin game till late in their marriage.  (Ibid., 21)

Jung's Two Personalities or Sub-Personalities:

When he was a young schoolboy Carl Gustave thought of himself as having two personalities.  These he called simple Number 1 and Number 2.  Let me return again here to Hayman's succinct summary of this:

He went back again to the idea that had presented itself when he was told off for standing up in the boat.  He consisted of two people.  As a schoolboy he was inferior to classmates who worked harder, paid more attention to teachers, washed more often and dressed more neatly.  But his other personality - he called it number 2 - had the wisdom of a mature man.  Sceptical and mistrustful, he preserved his detachment from other people, but not from nature.  Carl's lifeline depended on his system of splitting himself.

Number Two had power and authority, but Number One was too shy to let him display them...But, as before, most of his reading was unconnected with schoolwork.  (Ibid., 22)

Jung, throughout his life, insisted that these two distinct personalities had nothing to do with the medical sense and meaning of 'dissociation.'  Hayman is unconvinced, as I am, and quotes R.D Laing's description of the schizoid self in his famous book The Divided Self (1960).

Then, Hayman indicates that his mother acted in a "weird" way by confiding deep secrets concerning her and her husband to the eleven year old boy.  This, of course, is hardly "normal" behaviour for a parent:

She made alarming allegations, only to change the story next time she told it.  Carl was baffled by her duality.  In the daytime she was a loving mother, but at night she seemed weird.  (Ibid., 23)

First Love and Confirmation:

Carl played a lot with his first cousins. especially the children of his mother's brother Samuel Preiswerk.  Samuel's wife bore her husband some fifteen children.  The seventh sibling, Luise (Luggy) was Carl's favourite and Jung described her as his first love, though he never told her this.  His relationship with his father was poor and impersonal to say the least.  Carl simply failed to confide in him and even to understand what the man was about in life.  Paul, the father, chose to prepare his own son for his confirmation.  However, his presentation of the catechism did not inspire the son who felt the whole contents of it to be boring and insipid.  Having never understood the Trinity, he was looking forward  to his father's explanation.  However, according to Carl, this is all the good pastor said on that topic: "We're now coming to the Trinity, but we'll skip that because I don't understand anything about it."  (quoted ibid., 25)   This was a complete disappointment to the son because it showed that his father was lacking in intelligence and also in imagination.  After his Confirmation Jung recounts that he felt no difference at all about himself except that he had a new black suit with tails.

Philosophical Reading:

As a teenager Carl read voraciously, especially in philosophy and mentions how he read Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Plato, Meister Eckhart, Aquinas and Hegel.  He liked all these with the exception of the last two quoted here and was positively excited by SchopenhauerGoethe, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer and Kant made lasting impressions on his young mind.

Somewhat later Carl recounts that when he was around 18 he realised that his father had lost his faith.  In fact he says that he overheard the old man praying to God for the restoration of his faith.  As well as that the pastor had become almost unbearable to live with and would lose his temper very easily.  He recounts also that his father had said:  "The boy is interested in everything under the sun but doesn't know what he wants." (Quoted ibid., 27)  Unlike his father Carl Gustave felt that he had a personal experience of divine grace during what Hayman refers to as "the protracted period of schizoid solitude."  (Ibid., 26)



Above Jung sitting by the lakeside at Bollingen.

Sunday, September 21, 2008

Journeying with Jung 3



Background

Carl Gustave Jung, the founder of Analytical Psychology was born in Switzerland in 1875 and died there in 1961 just a month short of his 86th birthday. Jung emphasized studying the human mind or psyche through the analysis of dreams (like Freud before him); the use of art - art as therapy;  mythology as replete with archetypal images common to the collective unconscious, which term he coined; world religions (Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Tao etc) and philosophy drawn both from the East as well as from the West.  Needless to say as a qualified medical doctor and psychiatrist he also drew from conventional medicine.  As I have pointed out he threw his net wide into the seas of knowledge and drew inspiration from everywhere - early Greek (in all its mythology and philosophy) and Chinese thought (I Ching), the Scriptures, Old and New testaments, Early Fathers of the Church; Gnosticism; Medieval Manuscripts; Alchemy; Astrology, Sociology etc.  Every possible area of knowledge was looked upon as a source of possible light to illumine the human psyche.  If it could shed light, that is, be useful not alone in theory but essentially in therapy  then it was admissible.  As I have already pointed out I have long been acquainted with those concepts which he coined namely Shadow, Collective Unconscious, Archetypes, Individuation and Synchronicity and many others.  These words have been rattling around in my head for the last thirty years and I have often alluded to them in these posts.

The Thrust to Wholeness and Unity (or Integration or Individuation)

This thrust to wholeness was the central plank of Carl Jung's philosophy or theory of the person.  For him balance and harmony were essential if any individual is to achieve his/her personal potential.  He thought that modern people rely too heavily on science and logic and would benefit from integrating spirituality and an appreciation of unconscious realms into their more conscious pursuits.  The WIKI has an interesting paragraph on Jung which is worth quoting here for its succinctness and aptness:

Jung's work on himself and his patients convinced him that life has a spiritual purpose beyond material goals. Our main task, he believed, is to discover and fulfill our deep innate potential, much as the acorn contains the potential to become the oak, or the caterpillar to become the butterfly. Based on his study of Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Gnosticism, Taoism, and other traditions, Jung perceived that this journey of transformation is at the mystical heart of all religions. It is a journey to meet the self and at the same time to meet the Divine. Unlike Sigmund Freud, Jung thought spiritual experience was essential to our well-being.

(See this link: Jung )

Another preoccupation of Jung was his predilection for the integration of opposites which in itself is an ancient interest going back into the mist of times.  The Manichees believed that the Godhead itself was a unity of both Good and Evil. It was also a preoccupation of a lot of the Romantic philosophers and poets.  Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who had studied for some time at the University of Heidleberg in Germany, was an advocate of such an integration of opposites as was our own Nobel Laureate of Literature W.B. Yeats who referred to the harmony of "antinomies."  Jung's advocacy of such a harmony of opposites was to lead to a split with one of his best friends Fr.Victor White, O.P. a theologian from Blackfriars, Oxford, England.

Jung's Influence:

Jung's Analytical Psychology, called such to differentiate it from Freud's Psychoanalysis, forms with the latter two essential legs or strands of Depth Psychology and Psychotherapy.  Indeed, since then, there are many other strands of Psychotherapy, the elucidation of which is beyond our aim here in this present post.  Indeed there is a world-wide school of Jungian Analysis and any suitably qualified candidate can study under its remit to qualify as an analyst.  Carl Gustave also came up with the two famous terms Introversion and Extraversion.  Indeed the MBTI, a widely used personality inventory in Human Resource Management is based on Jung's theory of psychological types.   I have alluded to his other famous contributions to psychology in the opening paragraph so I won't repeat them here.  However, I will point out that Synchronicity Principle as an alternative to the Causality Principle, an idea which has gone on to even influence modern physicists.



Above a picture of Jung in old age.

Journeying with Jung 2



As I have indicated in the last post, I have just finished reading Ronald Hayman's magnum opus on Jung.  This is a thoroughly researched piece of work as are all the biographies written by Hayman.  However, I must admit I found his style a little unclear in  places especially when he over uses the third person singular pronoun - one is left often to re-read the paragraph to see to whom this pronoun refers.  However, this minor quibble aside, I found this biography a marvellously enriching book for anyone interested in the thought and therapy of Carl Gustave Jung. The book is divided into five major sections with roughly eight chapters in each.  I was caught by his titles for each chapter which point up a major insight from it or a specific occurrence in Jung's life or thought, e.g., "Bursting Out" (Ch. 1), "Lusty Stallion" (Ch. 9), "Creative Illness" (Ch. 16), "The Woman inside Me", (Ch. 17), "Cooking in the Rain" (Ch. 20), "Hitler is a Medicine Man" (Ch. 27) and "Jesus and Satan are Brothers" (Ch. 35)   The chapter titles, then, lead us forward with Hayman to trace the paradox, the enigma, the mystery that is Carl Gustave Jung.  To paint him either as a hero of humankind, an idol of modern depth psychology or psychiatry on the one hand or to depict him as an eccentric psychiatrist who embraced the strangest of ideas from mythology to alchemy to witchcraft as well as those from orthodox science on the other is to miss the point essentially.  Hayman avoids such extremes and paints a balanced picture of the man in all his strengths and weaknesses.  Jung, one feels would be very happy with this biography, because it paints him neither as sinner or saint but as a real person marrying both extremes somewhere on the middle ground.  In writing this biography, Hayman took Jung at his word - the whole man is portrayed not just either extreme.  For those of us who love Jung that word "whole" is so essentially Jungian.  I will indicate below some insights I gained from chapter to chapter.  While this is a very logical way to proceed, it is perhaps a little lacking in inspiration and assimilation on my part, but I can think of no better way at the moment to get my head around why I have always been "besotted" by Carl Gustave Jung.

Chapter 1: Bursting Out:

Hayman tells us that the words "peasant" and "natural" keep cropping up in all the accounts which those who met and knew Jung give of this great man.  All were impressed by his great and powerful mind which was highly cultivated.  Jung, after all, was a voracious reader.  An analyst called him: "a sort of humanist in the old Renaissance style...the most deeply rooted man I ever met." (A Life of Jung., W.W.Norton & Co., 2001, 3).  A word that kept recurring in my own mind as I read this biography was "earthy" and this links well with the above quoted "deeply rooted."  Then his secretary of the early fifties described him as "always himself." (ibid., 3)  I also like this statement, too, because to my mind it sums up the essential aim of Jungian therapy namely "individuation" or "integration" as Dr Anthony Storr (also a Jungian therapist and psychiatrist) puts it.

Another thing I liked is that Jung enjoyed confrontation and "eye-balling" his clients or patients.  Unlike Freud who sat behind them like an objective observer (I cannot help think of the image of the autocratic God of the Old Testament here) while Jung engaged with the person head on (I cannot help thinking of the personalist God of the New Testament as illustrated in the image of Jesus Christ).

Then we have the wonderful concept of the "collective unconscious", perhaps Jung's greatest contribution to psychology/psychiatry/psychotherapy.  As Hayman points out in this chapter:

Jung thought of the collective unconscious as a force that could intervene collectively in private relationships and public affairs. 'It doesn't matter to me in the slightest whether God and the unconscious are ultimately identical or not.'  What the religious man called God, he said,  is what the scientific intellect calls the collective unconscious.  For him the terms collective unconscious and psyche are interchangeable: since it is 'antecedent to man and is a sine qua non of his psychic life, I allow myself to call this "psyche" (or whatever it may be) "divine" in contradistinction to "human" '  (Op. cit., 4)

He was at one with Freud in wishing to be seen as a scientist not as a mystic.  In fact he loathed being called the latter.  Again to return to Hayman's words:

He insisted he was an empiricist, concerned only with facts that could be checked. 'What matters to me is what can be verified by experience...Anything I cannot demonstrate in the realm of human experience I let alone, and if someone should assert that he knows more about it, I ask him to furnish me with the necessary proofs.' (Ibid., 4)

Chapter 2: A Cannibal Jesus:

Hayman begins this chapter by pointing out how Paganism and Christianity exist side by side in the Switzerland where Jung grew up.  This is not surprising, because the same phenomenon is apparent also in Ireland where ancient wells called after Pagan gods were "baptized" as it were by the early Christians and took on saints' names.  There is a certain continuity as well as an apparent discontinuity between Paganism and Christianity.   Superstitions and cures exist in both and no theologian can excise them from the public mind or psyche.  To my mind Jung was essentially Romantic in temperament unlike Freud who was certainly more rational and more a creature of the Enlightenment.  The Romantic in Jung embraced the passions (which included superstitions, séances, the world of the spirits, incantations, witchcraft, magic, medicine and cures) as well as the rational.  Hence above I have alluded to how Jung was obsessive about the "whole" person - rational and non-rational and even irrational all had their place in his philosophy and psychology.  The young Carl had absolutely no doubt that his mother was in touch with the spirits.  Let us listen to Hayman again here:

It was she who taught him the prayer he had to recite before she kissed him good night.  In it he asked Lord Jesus top spread out his wings and take possession (or devour) the chicken (cake) Satan was about to devour.  She had unintentionally taught Carl to believe in a cannibal Jesus. (Ibid., 6-7)

Carl's father Paul was a parson in the Swiss Reformed Church and had to perform many funerals.  His older brother Paul had only lived a few days and Carl was born some two years later.  Death was always around the young boy as his father had to perform many funeral rites.  As Hayman points out, "Carl was told 'that Lord Jesus sometimes took people to himself, and this was the same as burying them in the ground." (Ibid., 8)

That Carl was obsessed with religion, God or gods or the world of the spirits is not too surprising, then.  Added to this there was the extraordinary fact that eight of his uncles were parsons - two of his father's brothers and six of his mother's.  His mother had been brought up to believe that the living were surrounded by the spirits of the dead.  Her whole family had a predilection for the paranormal.  While she was a very strong woman she was a very conflicted individual.  In fact some contend that she was an hysteric.  No wonder, then, that the young boy imbibed this obsession with the world of the paranormal and the occult.

I also liked this succinct insight from Hayman, which may be a total generalisation, but nevertheless I feel there is more than a germ of truth in it:

If Freud was overeager to explain religious feelings in terms of sexuality, Jung was over eager to translate sexuality into religion. (Ibid., 12)

Then, there are interesting insights into childhood and schizophrenia.  In these insights I am conscious of Professor Ivor Browne's and Dr Anthony Storr's insights into this same disease as a failure to "separate" out from the family and too "integrate" reality as it were.  Let me return to Hayman's words here:

In his 1912 book Transformations and Symbols of the Unconscious, he writes about schizophrenic tendencies in children of three or four.  The normal child, he says, strives to conquer the world and leave the mother behind. "But the dementia precox  patient (or schizophrenic) strives to leave the world behind and regain the subjectivity of childhood..."... D.W. Winnicott (in a review of Memories, Dreams, Reflections) argued that psychotic illness must have set in by the age of four, and that Carl's personality was split as he defended himself.  But he had a strong will to recovery, and arrived at an understanding of his psychosis...Analytical psychologist Michael Fordham...after reading a draft of the first three chapters of Memories, Dreams, Reflections...told Jung 'he had been a schizophrenic child, with strong obsessional defences, and that had he been brought to me I should have said that the prognosis was good, but that I should have recommended analysis.  He did not contest my statement.'  (Ibid., 13)

Finally Jung developed strange rituals as a child - "quasi-magical rituals that involved playing with fire." (Ibid., 14)  The fire was a symbol of his inner life or inner self.  Other ritualistic practices involved carving wood.  He created a small figure with a top had, black coat and boots like the clergymen he was all too familiar with.  He also created a small home for this manikin which he eventually hid in the attic, a place he was forbidden to visit.   In more classical psychoanalytical terms Winnicott would call this manikin a "transitional object" that can be possessed and manipulated.  All these rituals led to further ones.



Above a smiling Jung, late middle age.

Journeying with Jung 1



I have long been a reader of the works of Carl Gustave Jung (1875 – 1961) who was a famous Swiss psychiatrist, a personal friend and disciple of the founder of psychoanalysis Dr Sigmund Freud, an influential thinker and the founder of analytical psychology in opposition to psychoanalysis.  Jung himself owed much to his erstwhile friend and mentor, though they grew apart as the younger man began to establish himself as an independent thinker.  I had heard all the following Jungian terms when I was at college in the 1970s as his thought had infiltrated the study not alone of psychology but also of philosophy, theology and English literature which I was then studying: Shadow, Collective Unconscious, Archetypes, Individuation and Synchronicity.  These words have been rattling around in my head for the last thirty years and I have often alluded to them in these posts.

I have just finished reading the excellent biography of Carl Gustave Jung - the one written by Ronald HaymanDr. Anthony Storr, also a favourite psychiatrist and Jungian therapist, had this to say of Hayman's book: "The best biography of Jung."  When I saw this judgement quoted on the dust jacket I immediately purchased by copy of A Life of Jung (W.W. Norton & Co., 2001)

Indeed, I have often heard C.G. Jung lauded out of all proportion making him into an idol.  These people would, of course, quote the above terms like mantras or devotional phrases.  I have heard the opposite said of this great psychologist/psychiatrist - that he was a heathen, a man who had dabbled in everything from witchcraft to alchemy to orthodox medicine and psychiatry.  I remember one old priest lecturer telling us that Jung was "way off beam."  Of course, both of these extreme views made me buy his books to see what this scholarly genius or infamous heathen was saying.  Ronald Hayman has succeeded in his biography to avoid both these extremes and present us with a balanced picture of a Jung who was all too human and who made a lot of mistakes.  No surprises then, that this so called "great man" was not without his faults and blemishes.

Man of Contradictions: 

He was Freud's favourite disciple.  Indeed, the great pioneer of psychoanalysis had picked out Jung as his preferred successor - Freud chose Jung as the first president of The International Psychoanalytic Association.  However, the favoured disciple was to break away from Freudian over-control and a veritable autocracy of ideas. Jung made ground-breaking psychological discoveries yet operated most of the time on his impulses.  He saved a lot of people from both psychoses and neuroses, yet drove some others to distraction and at times to despair.  Many loved him truly yet the great man seldom returned such affection.  All his followers and friends found him to be utterly charismatic when lecturing or sharing insights or at celebrations or parties - he found it easy to inspire others with his enthusiasm for his ideas.  However, he was almost selfish to a fault with his time which he used like to spend exploring new ideas, writing and reading.  It is also interesting to read in Hayman's pages that C.G. Jung used empty his chamber pot out the window of his room in his tower-like house at Bollingen without checking to see if there was anyone underneath or not.   He had a short temper and could often use swear words when impatient with others.  He loved his food which he always cooked himself when at his tower in Bollingen.  He was also very much an outdoor man who loved chopping wood, swimming in the lake, taking his boat out and walking in the mountains.  He was a big man - around six foot three inches tall and was well-built and very sturdy.  He was rightly regarded as a great man not only in stature but also in intellect and in intuition.

This charismatic leader was as egotistical as Freud.  I found that Jung did not really like others to contradict his ideas - similar to the founder of Psychoanalysis in this also.  No wonder he eventually broke away from Freud.  What movement could contain two huge egos like that!  It is disturbing to see some traces of phrases and sentiments that could be construed as anti-Semitic in some of his writings and which indicate some measure of pro-Nazism.  Indeed, on the balance of the evidence I'm inclined to believe that C.G. Jung, while not openly pro-Nazi or anti-Semitic, played it safe - both for his own personal safety and that of his followers and for the survival of his own movement of Analytical Psychology.  I'm almost totally sure that most of us would not have acted otherwise given the sheer hatred and evil which were endemic in NazismHayman questions the sanity of his mother and presents his father as a very conflicted pastor who had deep doubts as to the existence of the God he preached.  Jung had also participated in séances with his cousins.  Did he believe in magic, ghosts and flying saucers?  Did he equate God with the collective unconscious?  Certainly, at times, I believe he did.  He also saw himself as a sort of "saviour" who could save humanity from nuclear destruction by psychologizing Christianity.



Above a picture of a relatively young Jung!